The book is focused primarily upon the anthropogenic impacts of human control of biological processes in surface waters. Its content deals with continental water pollution, biology of natural water pollution and protection and restoration of degraded water ecosystems. Human measures are described, such as waste water treatment and limnological backgrounds for advanced projects of reservoir restoration. The biological backgrounds are presented in chapters on biology of water organisms – the role of aquatic biota in surface water ecosystems, biology of water biocoenoses, biological indication of water quality, organic substances (saprobiology), habitat degradation, trophic potential. Fish food resources are described – food availability, polycultures, phytoplankton development, water blooms, natural food development control, cultivation and harvesting. Impact of fisheries upon water quality in ponds, land-locked intensive farms and cage culture is presented.